Professional educational psychologists (EPs) draw upon theory and research Applications about of Educational Psychology from other disciplines in order to benefit individual children, their families, and educational institutions, particularly schools through the following activities Applications.
An educational psychologist may be asked to advise a parent on how to deal with a pre0school child with major temper tantrums, to assess a young child with profound and multiple disabilities, to advise teachers on the nature of a 7-year-old’s reading difficulties, to advise teachers and parents on an adolescent’s problematic behavior, to undertake play therapy with an 8-year-old who has been sexually and physically abused, or to give an adolescent counseling or psychotherapy Applications.
In each case there is an assessment to identify the nature of the problem, followed by an intervention appropriate to this analysis. The assessment may include the use of standardized tests of attainment (such as reading and spelling); interviews; observation of the child in class, or with parents or friends; including play and structured pictures and tasks where the child arranges the materials to represent their own views of family, or other social arrangements. The interventions (planned procedures) may be equally wide- ranging. In some cases the EP will try to help adults to understand the nature of the problem. In other cases, more direct advice may be given on how to handle disturbing aspects of a child’s behavior. In other instances the EP advise or produce a specific programme of work, counseling, or behaviour change, which they might implement directly, or they may advise on and monitor the practices of teachers and parents.
Theories of counseling or psychotherapeutic intervention may help an adolescent with significant emotional problems. EPs normally work collaboratively with teachers and parents, and with medical and other colleagues. They play a major role in providing advice to local education authorities or school districts. The Ep may provide a consultancy service to the teacher or school. In some cases this service may be sought direct, for example when a new principal wishes to review a previous assessment or the school’s current behaviour policy. Research has indicated how schools can reduce bullying, improve pupil performance by rearranging classrooms, and improve the performance of children with special educational needs.
Educational psychology provides basis for the initial education of teachers, particularly in management of learning and behaviour, and also on curriculum design, with special attention given to the needs of individual children. Increasingly educational psychology is also contributing to the student teachers’ understanding of the school as a system and the importance of this wider perspective for optimizing their performance; to their professional development by helping them analyses their own practice, belief and attitudes and once they begin the practice of teaching, to their continuing professional development based on experience in school particularly in areas such as special needs and disability. The impact of information technology and the increasing development of inclusive education provide particular challenges.