In (1997) Bandura defines self efficacy as beliefs in one’s capabilities to organize and execute the course of action required to produce given attainments theory. As such, self-efficacy is a form of situationspecified self-confidence. Self-efficacy is the critical component of what Bandura refers to as social cognitive theory. In order for self-efficacy to develop, the individual must believe that she is in control and that the acts she performed were performed intentionally. The power and will to originate a course of action is the key feature of personal agency. Now for example if a person believes she is in control and that she has the power to produce specific results, she will be motivated to try to make things happen. Now if an athlete perceives or believes that she can influence for good the outcome of a contest, she will eagerly enter into the competition. Thus, an efficacious athlete is a motivated athlete. The athlete is motivated to work hard to ensure success because she believes that she can succeed. Bandura proposes four fundamental elements effective in developing self-efficacy. Each of these elements is critical in understanding how an athlete can develop self-efficacy and self-confidence. Bandura’s four fundamental elements in developing self-efficacy
1 Successful Performance
In successful performance the athlete must experience success in order for self-efficacy to develop. With a difficult task, this is an unrealistic expectation, so the coach or teacher must ensure success by initially reducing the difficulty the difficulty of the task. An example of this can be found in tennis and volleyball instructions. A beginner may not be able to successfully serve volleyball across the net on a regulation court, but when the coach encourages the athlete to step into the court several meters, it can be accomplished.
2 Vicarious Experience
Beginning athletes can experience success through models. In learning a new skill the learner needs a template or model to copy. This can be provided by the instructor, a skilled teammate, or a film or video of a skilled performer. An important component of Bandura’s theory is the concept of participatory modeling. In participatory modeling, the learner first observes a model perform a task. Then the instructor or model assists the subject in successfully performing the task. The vicarious experience of success will provide a good foundation for the experience of success in a real situation.
3 Verbal persuasion
Verbal persuasion usually comes in the form of encouragement form the coach, parents, or peers. Helpful verbal statements that suggest that the athlete is competent and can succeed are most desirable. Coaching should be such that it should not contain any negativism. For example, the coach could say “good swing, Mary. Now remember to keep your eyes on the ball”. Verbal persuasion can also take the form of self-persuasion. This is referred to as self-talk.
4 Emotional arousal
Emotional and physiological arousal is the factors that can influence readiness for learning. Proper attention is important in helping the athlete to master a particular skill and develop a feeling of efficacy. The efficacy of Bandura’s model in the sport setting is well documented. Perceived self-efficacy is a strong and consistent predictor of individual athletic performance.