Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development are 8. the Basic Trust vs. Mistrust (Oral-Sensory Stage): Birth –18months: Early we have known Erik Erikson’s Theory of Psychosocial Development Infancy
• The infant develops a sense of who and when to trust.
• He learns when to protect oneself and be cautious.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt: 18 months to 3 years: Early Childhood
• The child develops a sense of independence and is able to understand and recognize his limitations. If independence is encouraged, he develops a sense of autonomy.
• If the child is overly restricted, over-protected, or criticized it may result into self-doubt and shame. Shame occurs when child is overly self-conscious when negatively exposed. Self-doubt occurs when parents overly shame the child, e.g. about elimination.
Initiative vs. Guilt: 3 to 6 years: late Childhood
• The child is able to tryout and explore various things.
• Indulges in various activities, both motor and intellectual.
• Guilt arises after doing the negative acts e.g. aggression.
Industry vs. Inferiority: 6 to 11 years: School Age
o Child is busy in
• Creating, and
o Receives systematic instruction as well as fundamentals of technology.
o Learns norms and standards of the society in which he lives.
o Socially decisive age. The child gains self- esteem.
Identity vs. Role confusion: Adolescence
• The person has a coherent sense of self.
• Plans to actualize one’s abilities or becomes confused when unable to accomplish task.
• Problems may result in impulsive attitude or extended immaturity.
• Indecisiveness may occur.
• In extreme cases there can be a possibility of antisocial behavior.
Intimacy vs. Isolation: 18 to 25 years: Young adulthood (beginning in the early 20s and may extend to the 40s) Young adults focus on
• Maintaining one’s individuality
• Making friends
• Relationships and intimacy
Adulthood Generativity vs. Stagnation: Middle adulthood (40-60 years)
o Age of
• Concern about guiding and helping the next generation
• Concern for others or self-indulgence
• Impoverishment of self