The Greek Philosophers HIPPOCRATES (460-377 B.C.) Hippocrates Contribution to Psychology One of the more important advances in Greek philosophy and science was the separation of the practice of medicine from religion. Hippocrates was a physician, who not only raised the standard of medical investigation but also developed the code of ethics for the physicians. He, like Alcamaeon, stressed upon the significance of the brain in psychological processes, and he approached the problems of medicine systematically.
He postulated a theory of “humors” that account for the basic human activity. He believed that the perfect health is the result of the proportionate mixture of these humors. To him, there were four basic humors that were associated with different temperaments.
He believed that four temperaments form personality:
• Sanguine (Cheerful and Active)
• Melancholic (Sad)
• Choleric (Angry and Aggressive)
• Phlegmatic (Calm and Passive)