Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory Basically a stage theory The needs at one level have to be met in order for one to move on to higher order. The needs at the lowest/primary/base level are the physiological needs whereas the highest order needs are the self-actualization . Self-Actualization Most advanced human need based on the desire to potential up to the optimal level grow and utilize one’s.
Abraham Harold Maslow (1908-1970)
• American psychologist and leading exponent of humanistic approach.
• Gave comprehensive theory of motivation.
• Found the prevalent psychology to be too pessimistic and negatively oriented.
Key Points of Maslow Theory
• Psychology and the psychologist should look at the positive side of the human beings.
• There must be more to living than just being battered by a hostile environment or by depraved instincts which may actually be leading to self-destruction.
• People’s needs are not low level and base. We have positive needs that may become neutral in the worst cases, but will not turn negative or base.
• Human behavior does respond to needs but we will be wrong in saying that all our needs are only physiological in nature
• Needs motivate human action; such needs are very few in number.
Interactions and needs of Behavior
• Physiological needs: Fulfilled through = hunger/food: Pathology associated = Over-eating, Anorexia.
• Safety Hierarchy of needs: Fulfilled through = profession, job; Pathology associated = Phobias.
• Love and belonging: Fulfilled through = Marriage, Friendship: Pathology associated = Antisocial personality.
• Esteem needs: Fulfilled through = Awards, Honors, Scholarships; Pathology associated = Depression.
• Self-actualization needs: Fulfilled through = Painting, writing, singing: Pathology associated = Isolation, Alienation, Cynicism.
Criticism against Maslow theory
• Although a comprehensive and well formed theory it has been criticized at some points
• Can we actually for all case distribute and neatly order these needs? There is little empirical evidence to support Maslow’s way of ranking needs Extensions of Humanistic Approach Existential Psychology (Jean Paul Sartre, Rollo May)
• Frankl’s Logotherapy • Positive Psychology (Martin Seligman)