Psychodynamic Model of Personality has three-part structure of the mind containing id, ego and super ego in Psychodynamic approach
At birth, the entire mind consists of only id. It consists of pure, unadulterated, instinctual energy and exists entirely on the unconscious level. It is the source of basic drives; operates under the ‘pleasure principle’ i.e., it wants immediate gratification of needs. The id has two means of satisfying bodily needs, reflex action and wish fulfillment.
Reflex action is responding automatically to a source of irritation .e.g. an infant may sneeze in response to an irritant in the nose or reflexively move a confined limb, thereby freeing it. In both cases, reflex action is effective in reducing tension. Coughing and blinking are other examples of reflex action.
Wish- fulfillment is more complicated. It is the conjuring up of an image of an object or event that is capable of satisfying a biological need e.g. a hungry person thinks of food- related objects.
Mediates the link of the self with the outside world, “Real World”, as well as between the id and superego; operates under the demands of the environment. It operates under the reality principle and operates in the services of id. In other words, the ego comes into existence in order to bring the person into contact with experiences that will truly satisfy his/ her needs. When the person is hungry, the ego finds food; when the person is sexually aroused, the persons finds an appropriate sex object; and when the person is thirsty, the ego finds liquid.
The ego goes through reality testing to find appropriate objects.
There is a third component of personality that makes things much more complicated, i.e. super ego. It is governed by the moral constraints. It develops from the internalized patterns of reward and punishment that the young child experiences i.e. Depending on the values of the parents, certain things the child does or says are rewarded and encouraged and others not liked are punished or discouraged.