What is the Type of behavioral and emotional style? The Type A behavior pattern consists of three characteristics:
1. Competitive achievement orientation. Type A individuals tend to be very self-critical and to strive toward goals without feeling a sense of joy in their efforts or accomplishments.
2. Time urgency. Type A people seem to be in a constant struggle against the clock. Often, they quickly become impatient with delays and unproductive time, schedule commitments too tightly, and try to do more than one thing at a time, such as reading while eating or watching TV.
3. Anger/hostility. Type A individuals tend to be easily aroused to anger or hostility, which they may or may not express overtly.
In contrast, the Type B behavior pattern consists of low levels of competitiveness, time urgency, and hostility. People with the Type B pattern tend to be more easygoing and philosophical about life they are more likely to “stop and smell the roses”.
As a summary of the role of psychosocial modifiers of stress, we have seen that social support, personal control, hardiness, and the Type A and B behavior patterns are factors that can modify the impact of stress on health. High levels of social support, personal control, and hardiness are generally associated with reduced