Types of Observation

Types of Observation approach used depends on the research question and/or the discipline the researcher belongs to types of Observation with Intervention

1. Participant Observation
2. Structured Observation
3. Field experiments

1. Participant Observation
The observer becomes a part of the situation and plays an active and significant role in the situation, event, or context under study. It can be of two types: Disguised Participant Observation Undisguised Participant Observation

2. Structured Observation
• Employed when the researcher intends to study a situation, which occurs infrequently or is inaccessible otherwise.
• The observer may “create” a situation or initiate it.
• The control exercised by the observer is less than that in many other techniques.
• Mostly employed by clinical and developmental psychologists.

3. Field Experiments
• Experiments in the natural setting; the degree of control is far less than that in laboratory experiments.
• One or more independent variables are manipulated in the natural setting in order to see their impact on behavior.

Types of Observation Confederate: the researcher is assisted by one or more confederates who behave in a pre- planned manner so as to initiate an experimental condition.
A method used for identifying predictive relationships among naturally occurring variables Correlation Can be said to exist when two different measures of the same individuals, objects, or events vary together e.g. Relationship between I.Q. score & academic achievement or entry test marks & academic achievement. Correlation is a statistical concept.

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